Lebanon – 2016 Data Release

During 2016, the war in Syria greatly impacted Lebanon due to the more than one million Syrian refugees entering the country, and the active fighting with Syrian rebel forces along the Syrian-Lebanese border. Multiple suicide bombings in June 2016 in the city of Al-Qaa, allegedly carried out by Syrians, aggravated tensions between Lebanese citizens and…

Israel and Palestine – 2016 Data Release

In 2016, an increase in the development of settlements by Israel in the Palestinian West Bank was recorded while discriminatory land policies remained in place to prevent land development by Palestinians. This context led to numerous reports of violence across the region, particularly in locations where Palestinians and ‘settlers’ live in close proximity. Israel’s support…

Turkey – 2016 Data Release

In Turkey, the beginning of 2016 was marked by escalating violence in the southeast as part of the renewed Kurdish/Turkish conflict following the 20 July 2015 Islamic State (IS) attack on the Kurdish city of Suruç. Following this attack, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) claimed that the Turkish government was collaborating with IS, prompting a…

Bahrain – 2016 Data Release

In 2016, high periods of demonstration activity were reported during three particular periods in Bahrain. First, the year started with Saudi Arabia executing the prominent Shiite cleric Nimr Baqir al-Nimr. This led to numerous rallies and protests held by Bahraini Shiites over several days in condemnation of his killing during January 2016. Second, a surge…

Iran – 2016 Data Release

2016 was marked by an upsurge in Iran’s conflict with Kurdish insurgents. From the mid-1990s through 2016, the Iranian Kurdish parties had refrained from taking action against Iranian security forces, with the exception of sporadic attacks by Party of Free Life of Kurdistan (PJAK). However, these groups were empowered militarily over the past few years…

Iraq – 2016 Data Release

In 2016, the groundwork was laid for the dramatic defeat of the Islamic State in 2017. During offensives throughout the year, a number of towns in western Iraq in particular were recaptured — most notably the strategic town of Ar Rutba (which commands Iraqi border crossings into both Jordan and Syria) in May 2016, and…