Pro-government militias and electoral violence in Kenya

Pro-government militias (hereafter PGMs) are political, armed organizations that assist regime and state elites through the practice of illicit violence. They are designed to perpetuate conflict for purposes that conform to regime agendas, and their existence can shed light on power struggles and competition within African institutions.…

Conflict Trend Summaries 2016

Kenya Kenya saw a decrease in political violence and reported fatalities in 2016. The vast majority of fatalities in 2016 still came from Al Shabaab activity. The country also saw a spike in demonstrations in June over whether the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) should be reformed before the general elections of August 2017 (Africa Confidential, 10 June 2016).…

Caste Violence in India Sparks Dalit Protests

July and August 2016 witnessed an unprecedented surge of Dalit protest against their systematic discrimination. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s home state of Gujarat experienced the bulk of the protests, which resulted in the resignation of Gujarat Chief Minister Anandiben Patel, and the continued struggle of the the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) state government to restore confidence among the Dalit community (Firstpost, 2016).…

Electoral Violence in South Asia: Local Elections in West Bengal & Bangladesh

Between March and June, local elections in Bangladesh and in West Bengal, India,  led to a spike in political violence and protests. Despite a long-standing history of electoral violence in both areas, the extent and pattern of violence, especially in Bangladesh, is considered unprecedented (Gulf Times 2016).…

Mozambique – October 2016 Update

More than two decades after civil war ended in Mozambique, and despite years of economic growth and relatively peaceful elections, the country continues to face political and security challenges. General levels of political violence have continued to rise in 2016 as events have increased in intensity and in geography (68 events of political violence across 10 provinces have been recorded in 2016 up from 19 such events were observed across 6 provinces in 2015).…

Uganda — April 2016 Update

Political violence and protest events increased in Uganda in 2016, with unrest during the election period in February continuing to grow during the post-election period in March. Episodes of political violence have been concentrated within certain counties – most notably Kampala, Kasese, Bundibugyo and Kapchorwa – that have formed key battlegrounds in the 2016 election between incumbent Museveni and the National Resistance Movement (NRM) and the opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) led by Kizza Besigye.…